Institute of Network Cultures

The Institute of Network Cultures (INC) analyzes and shapes the terrain of network cultures through events, publications, and online dialogue. Our projects evolve around digital publishing, alternative revenue models, online video and design, digital counter culture and much more.

The INC was founded in 2004 by Geert Lovink, following his appointment within the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences. A key focus is the establishment of sustainable research networks. Emerging critical topics are identified and shaped in a practical sense. Interdisciplinary in character, the INC brings together researchers, artists, activists, programmers, designers, and students and teachers.


The field of network cultures revolves around the interaction between new forms of media, and the users of such new forms. With a strong focus on the transdisciplinary nature of new media and its DIY and open source components, the INC gives equal attention to the artistic, political and technical aspects of the internet and other emergent media. As such, the INC’s area of research extends to design, activism, art, philosophy, political theory, and urban studies and is not confined to the internet alone. Indeed, the INC maintains that the internet can only be understood at the conjuncture of these various fields and lines of inquiry. ‘Network cultures’ is seen as a strategic instrument to diagnose political and aesthetic developments in user-driven communication. Network cultures rapidly assemble, and can just as quickly disappear, creating a sense of spontaneity, transience, even uncertainty. Yet these forms are here to stay. However self-evident it is, collaboration is a foundation of network cultures.

Model of the INC method, via public research (e.g. conferences) and publications a sustainable network will be formed.

Model of the INC method, via public research (e.g. conferences) and publications a sustainable network will be formed.

The aim of the INC is to create sustainable research networks around emerging topics in which a critical contribution can be made. The formation of a small group of international people, both inside and outside of the academy, may result in a larger online discussion. Together with the researchers and a group of students, interns and volunteers, an event is organized to gather key questions and thinkers. Many of these events, such as a conference, seminar or workshop, culminate in a publication. Formats of publication may include a printed reader, a book, video interviews, wikis, blogs and special online magazine issues, along with conference documentation (photos, video files and podcasts). The publication functions as an important vehicle for the sustainability of the research network.

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INC themes

Image culture

These days images form part and parcel of every message when surfing, searching and interacting. On dedicated platforms like YouTube and Pinterest images are gathered, annotated and shared. Images are more than just illustration: they have retained an autonomous status, digitalization notwithstanding. Online video has to observe its own rules with respect to editing, light, framing, use of sound, and so on. How has this been changed under the influence of digitalization and the ubiquity of digital cameras? What relationship should visual education have to this? And the key question: is the image taking over from the written word? Alongside the technical, economic and social aspects of the network, its aesthetic component is becoming increasingly important. To understand this better we need to engage in an open, critical dialogue with visual artists, designers and film-makers at all levels of the network culture.

Hybrid publishing

The publishing world is perhaps one of the last big media organizations to be making the transition to the digital domain. So it is now going through a sea-change moment in which new relationships will emerge between writer, publisher, designer and distributor. Many of its older mechanisms may soon no longer work, but in their place new possibilities will arise with regard to formats, reading experiences, social reading, do-it-yourself, business models, and so on. Is the book business – like other media industries – headed towards an iTunes model in which content is cut up into parts? What about e-reading and the digital library?

Revenue models in the arts

More and more young professionals are entering the market and it is getting harder to find a solid job. Remuneration for web design and app development is falling all the time, while content itself has been more or less written off and is made available for free. A freelancer’s life is an insecure one. In a moribund economy, finding new income sources is a matter of urgency. IT is getting ever more important, but outsourcing continues to expand. Online funding of the creative sector is still in its infancy and badly needs more research and development. What will future YouTube earnings models look like? Will crowdfunding and Bitcoins supply enough ‘supplementary income’? And where will the basic income come from?

Multidisciplinary engagement

Political action and social involvement are no longer isolated, underground activities, or limited to a small group of activists. People are experimenting with new media and digital technologies everywhere and all the time. Post-2000 a new relationship has arisen between politics and aesthetics, and the technical knowledge needed to effectively deploy new media has spread quickly. Today, ‘compassion fatigue’ and nihilism are the greatest problems; where do we draw the line between ‘clicktivism’ and real involvement? Is going offline the only option? How can social movements organize themselves, beyond social media? We are in the middle of a quest to find the right balance between virtuality and the street, between networks and squares, as public spaces used to be called in the old days. What do the newest tactics look like to today’s social mix of artists, programmers, researchers and designers?


Design is more than just the optimization of business processes and information streams. For INC, design is above all an aesthetic expression that asks questions. Design is a skill and an applied art that is essential to anyone building systems for the media and information industries. Without a solid knowledge of visual language, and a critical attitude towards form and functionality, designers end up simply copying standard protocols: the filling in of empty templates. A world without aesthetic practice is a bleak and barren environment, dominated by a pure functionality in which the spirits of both the maker and the user are absent. In design education it is essential that links are forged between functional informatics and interaction design, not just for students but for everyone who goes online. How do we break out of this ‘urge to optimize’?

Knowledge production

Internet platforms like Google, Wikipedia, and online university modules such as MOOCs are increasingly determining what we mean by ‘knowledge’. In education, digital databases are replacing not only the old-fashioned library but also the teacher’s role as the dispenser of knowledge to the student. If something isn’t on Google then it might as well not exist. What does this mean for a student’s view on the world? Who gets to decide what is important and what is not? It is vital to know what websites like Wikipedia and search engines like Google look like on the inside, and to understand how they work, while the process of knowledge production is being increasingly left to software algorithms. What are the real-world politics behind these algorithms, editing bots and online courses?

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Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences (Hogeschool van Amsterdam)

The Institute of Network Cultures is part the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences (HvA), domain Media, Creation and Information. Within this domain the INC is part of knowledge centre CREATE-IT applied research. Within the context of CREATE-IT, the responsibilities of the INC include the provision of internships, lectures, BA thesis supervision and courses on media and design theory. Geert Lovink’s appointment was one of 300 ‘lector’ positions across national Applied Universities assigned to formulate the research agenda for Dutch vocational education.

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Who is who

The Institute of Network Cultures works with a small team from the office in Amsterdam. Researchers and interns from the Netherlands and abroad join on project basis, adding value, expertise, and new perspectives. Together they form the widespread collaboration network of the INC.


Geert Lovink is a media theorist, internet critic and author of Zero Comments (2007), Networks Without a Cause (2012) and Social Media Abyss (2016).  He holds a PhD from the University of Melbourne and in 2003 was at the Centre for Critical and Cultural Studies, University of Queensland. Since 2004 he is researcher in the School for Communication and Media Design at the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences (Hogeschool van Amsterdam) where he is the founding director of the Institute of Network Cultures. His centre recently organized conferences, publications and research networks such as Video Vortex (the politics and aesthetics of online video), Unlike Us (alternatives in social media), Critical Point of View (Wikipedia), Society of the Query (the culture of search), MoneyLab (bitcoins, crowdfunding & internet revenue models) and digital publishing strategies. In 2005-2006 he was a fellow at the Wissenschaftkolleg in Berlin. Since 2009 he is Professor at the European Graduate School (Saas-Fee) where he supervises PhD students. He is an advisory board member of the Digital Ethnography Research Centre (RMIT, Melbourne). From 2004-2013 he was also associate prof. at Mediastudies (new media), University of Amsterdam. Email: geert[at]xs4all[dot]nl.

Project members

Leonieke van Dipten started with INC as an intern for De Kunst van de Kritiek. She is working on an inventory of the digital needs and problems of cultural magazines concerning online art criticism. The internship at INC was part of her graduation project for a Masters degree in New Media and Digital Culture at Utrecht University. She has a Bachelor of design in Cross Media Design from the Artez Institute of the Arts where she focused on photography and video. Her research interests are participatory culture, the ideological expectations of (new) technologies and the relationships between on- and offline cultures. Email: leonieke[at]networkcultures[dot]org.

Marleen Kerssemakers is project manager at the Institute of Network Cultures, and is responsible for fundraising and collaborations. Marleen has academic and professional background in communication, public relations and event management and has worked for communication, PR and event agencies and several politicians and decision makers in The Netherlands. The five years prior to joining INC she worked for a foundation that aims to achieve a better gender balance in the top of Dutch organisations. Email: marleen[at]networkcultures[dot]org.

Vera van de Nieuwenhof is project assistant at the Institute of Network Cultures and is involved in event organisation and communication. Before joining INC she has worked for other Dutch organisations in the e-culture and creative industries realm: Waag Society, Submarine, Virtueel Platform and Het Nieuwe Instituut. She has recently graduated from the University of Amsterdam with a Bachelor in Architectural History. Email: vera[at]networkcultures[dot]org.

Miriam Rasch started working as publication manager at the Institute of Network Cultures in June 2012. Next to that she teaches philosophy and media theory at the Media, Information and Communication department, and is thesis supervisor. She holds a masters degree in Literary Studies (2002) and Philosophy (2005). She co-edited two volumes in the INC Reader series: Unlike Us: Social Media and Their Alternatives and Society of the Query: Reflections on Web Search. Since graduating she worked as a (web)editor and from 2008 on as a programmer for the public lectures department at Utrecht University, Studium Generale. She writes book reviews and guest posts for different websites and magazines; her personal blog can be found on miriamrasch.nl. Email: miriam[at]networkcultures[dot]org.

Margreet Riphagen, project manager at INC, graduated in 2000 in Integrated Communication Management at the Hogeschool of Utrecht. After graduating, Margreet worked at an advertising agency in Utrecht. In June 2003 she started working at Waag Society as a producer. After three and a half years at Waag Society she switched to the Media Guild, which is a not for profit organisation that fosters innovative starters in the field of new media and ICT. After setting up the Media Guild, she left for Blender, which is a 3D open source animation suite. There she was co-producer of Big Buck Bunny (Peach open movie project) and producing an open game. Since August 2008 she works at the Institute for Network Cultures managing and producing projects for the INC. In 2009 she finished her postbachelor Business Science. Currently she is studying Information Studies, Human Centered Multimedia. Email: margreet[at]networkcultures[dot]org.

Patricia de Vries is project coordinator at the Institute of Network Cultures, and is responsible for coordinating current research projects. Patricia has an academic formation in Media Studies (BA), Cultural Analysis (MA) and Liberal Studies (MA). Over the years, working with several media, cultural and research institutions in different capacities, she gained a wide range of work experience in research, editing, and project and event management. Among other things, she worked as a film programmer at Studio K, as an editor of the art magazine Simulacrum, and as a marketing and PR assistant at Boom Publishing House. From 2010 until 2012 she was based in New York where she served as a research and communications associate at the think tank World Policy Institute, and as a teaching assistant of prof. James Miller at The New School for Social Research.  Email: patricia[at]networkcultures[dot]org.


Nancy Mauro-Flude is a media designer, performer and writer on contemporary art and cultural theory, based in Tasmania. She was been artist-in-residence at Somatic Movement Institute (2000-1); Waag Society, institute for art, science and technology (2003-5); and SUBOTRON, Museum Quartier, Vienna (2008), her writing has appeared in different journals, anthologies and monographs. She is alumni of DasArts, Master of Theatre in Amsterdam (2014) and was award an MA from Piet Zwart Institute, Rotterdam (2007), an was am Honorary Researcher at Slade School of Fine Art in Electronic Media (2008-9). Nancy recently completed a PhD, University of Tasmania, researching the performance of code and the dramaturgy of transmission in contemporary art. She lecturers at the University of Tasmania, Miss Despoinas Media Salon, among other experiential pedagogy programmes around the world. Formerly a pirate radio host, you also may also find her singing, dancing and playing with bizarre concoctions of custom-built synths, hacked-gamepads and voodoo-dolls in live audio visual performances.

Current INC interns

Max Dovey assists with the MoneyLab project. He describes himself as 28.3% man, 14.1% artist and 8.4% successful. He holds a BA Hons in Fine Art: Time Based Media and a MA (MDes) in Media Design from Piet Zwart Institute. His performances confront how computers, software and data affect the human condition. Specifically he is interested in how the meritocracy of neo-liberal ideology is embedded in technology and digital culture. His research is in liveness and real-time computation in performance and theatre.  He works as a producer and creative technologist for live events and theatre in both The Netherlands and U.K.  

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INC has collaborated with:

Lily Antflick, research intern for the project the Unbound Book and Theory on Demand series;

Srividya Balasubramanian, research intern for the project Society of the Query, as a part of the Bachelor of Social Sciences in Communications and New Media from the National University of Singapore;

Matthew Beros intern assisting with the Hybrid Publishing Lab project, next to completing a Masters degree in Book and Digital Media Studies at Leiden University;

Juliana Brunello, research intern for the project Wikipeda, as part of the Bachelor of Arts degree from the Universitaet Siegen (DE) in Social Sciences with emphasis in Media Studies;

Marije Brom, research intern on the  Society of the Query project and the MyCreativity project;

Francesca Coluzzi worked as a research intern at INC from September 2012 – January 2013, conducting interviews and blogging for the Oor of Ink project;

Marta Burugorri, intern involved in the Video Vortex project (2013-2014);

Morgan Currie, researcher for the project Economies of the Commons and the Unbound Book;

Vicentiu Dinga, research intern at INC for Society of the Query #2 and the MoneyLab project (2013-2014);

Marije van Eck, wrote her BA-thesis, an analysis of the phenomenon of user generated content on YouTube, in order to complete the New Media and Digital Culture program at Utrecht University (NL);

Dennis Deicke, research intern for the project Society of the Query as part of his study of Communication and Cultural Management at the Zeppelin University (DE);

Andrew Erlanger, research intern from February – April 2013, working on the Unlike Us #3 conference on social media;

Inte Gloerich started as a production intern for the MyCreativity Sweatshop (2014) and now does research at the PublishingLab.

Cecilia Guida, is a Ph.D. candidate at the IULM University of Milan (IT) where she is conducting a research on the social and political functions of art practice in the networked society. She was involved in the Video Vortex project;

Larissa Hildebrandt, produced the Unlike Us #3 conference in Amsterdam.

Minke Kampman, research intern as part of writing her thesis for MA New Media at the University of Amsterdam (NL). She was involved in the WinterCamp project;

René König, PhD researcher and INC intern from September 2012 – January 2013, working on the Society of the Query project on search engines;

Silvio Lorusso, PhD Candidate in Design Sciences at IUAV University of Venice. Currently investigating the intersections between publishing and digital technology from the perspective of art and design;

Sebastian Olma prepared a book publication on the conditions of creative production in the age of manufactured serendipity and creative industries within the MyCreativity project.

Stijn Peeters, research intern from February – April 2013, working on the Unlike Us #3 conference on social media;

Rachel Somers Miles, worked at INC from April 2010 – April 2011 on the Culture Vortex and Video vortex program and was editor of the VVII Reader;

Kimberley Spreeuwenberg was project coordinator of the Digital Publishing Toolkit research project and now teaches at the Willem de Kooning Academy in Rotterdam.

Sabine Niederer, worked at INC from September 2004 – January 2012 as the managing director of the Institute of Network Cultures;

Shirley Niemans, worked at INC as a producer and researcher, involved in many projects, September 2006 – Augustus 2008.

Michelle Oosthuyzen, is working at the INC as intern and researcher, Februari 2012 – April 2012.

Frederiek Pennink was an intern for the Society of the Query #2 conference, 2013.

Marc Stumpel, worked at INC as a producer and researcher, involved in Unlike Us, September 2011 – April 2012

Carlos García Moreno-Torres, worked at INC as an intern involved in the Video Vortex project from September 2010 to April 2011.

Matthijs Weijers was a research intern on the Digital Publishing Toolkit project, as part of his final thesis for the HvA direction Media, Marketing and Publishing (MIC).

Serena Westra started as an intern involved with the Critical Point of View event (2008) and worked in different functions for the INC up till 2013.

Jess van Zyl was an intern assisting with the Hybrid Publishing project, and now working with as researcher with the PublishingLab.